, In Java, leopards inhabit dense tropical rainforests and dry deciduous forests at altitudes from sea level to 2,540 m (8,330 ft). In Greek mythology, the leopard was a symbol of the god Dionysus; who was depicted wearing leopard skin and using leopards as means of transportation. In the Serengeti, they are as small as 33â38 km2 (12 1⁄2â14 1⁄2 sq mi) for males and 14â16 km2 (5 1⁄2â6 sq mi) for females, and as large as 451 km2 (174 sq mi) for males and 188 km2 (72 1⁄2 sq mi) for females in northeastern Namibia.  Four European Pleistocene leopard subspecies were proposed. Since 1996, only eight subspecies have been considered valid on the basis of mitochondrial analysis. , In Europe, the leopard occurred at least since the Pleistocene. Another litter was born in 1961, in which all the offspring were spotted and bigger than a juvenile leopard. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more.   The oldest known leopard fossils excavated in Europe are about 600,000 years old and were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet in France and near Mauer in Germany.  In the Kalahari Desert, leopards frequently lose kills to brown hyenas, if the leopard is unable to move the kill into a tree.  They are even larger in arid and montane areas.   Kills are cached up to 2 km (1 1⁄4 mi) apart.  The leopard-lion clade diverged 3.1â1.95 million years ago. In a reserved forest of southern India, species preyed upon by leopard, dhole and striped hyena overlapped considerably. There is considerable potential for human-leopard conflict due to leopards preying on livestock. In the Serengeti, leopards have been observed to ambush prey by jumping down on it from trees.  An Indian leopard killed in Himachal Pradesh in 2016 measured 261 cm (8 ft 7 in) with an estimated weight of 78.5 kg (173 lb); it was perhaps the largest known wild leopard. P. p. begoueni from the beginning of the Early Pleistocene was replaced about 0.6 million years ago by P. p. sickenbergi, which in turn was replaced by P. p. antiqua around 0.3 million years ago. The way the kill is stored depends on local topography and individual preferences; while trees are preferred in Kruger National Park, bushes are preferred in the plain terrain of the Kalahari. Weerasinghe, U.M.I.R.K., Kariyawasm, D. and M. De Zoysa (2003).    The specific name Latin: pardus refers to a male panther. 1400-1600)-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, ÐÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÑÑÐºÐ°Ñ (ÑÐ°ÑÐ°ÑÐºÐµÐ²ÑÑÐ°)â, Ð¡Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ñ£Ð½ÑÑÐºÑ / â°â°â°â°â°¡â°â° â°â°â°, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Present and historical distribution of the leopard, It is the most widespread leopard subspecies and is native to most of, It is native to mainland Southeast Asia and, This page was last edited on 15 February 2021, at 07:38. The fur tends to be grayish in colder climates, and dark golden in rain forest habitats. , While interspecies killing of full-grown leopards is generally rare, given the opportunity, both tiger and lion readily kill and consume both young and adult leopards. In southern China, leopards were recorded only in the Qinling Mountains during surveys in 11 nature reserves between 2002 and 2009. Around three months of age, the young begin to follow the mother on hunts. It has since been hypothesized that it became extirpated from the island due to the Toba eruption about 75,000 years ago, and due to competition with other predators, such as the Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) and the dhole (Cuon alpinus). , Like most cat species, the leopard has a diploid chromosome number of 38. , Following Linnaeus' first description, 27 leopard subspecies were proposed by naturalists between 1794 and 1956. Neofelis diverged about 8.66 million years ago from the Panthera lineage. In the Indian subcontinent, the leopard is still relatively abundant, with greater numbers than those of other Panthera species.  As of 2020, the leopard population within forested habitats in India's tiger range landscapes was estimated at 12,172 to 13,535 individuals. They produce a number of vocalizations, including growls, snarls, meows and purrs. , In Serengeti National Park, troops of 30â40 olive baboons were observed while mobbing and attacking a female leopard and her cubs. , Fossils of leopard ancestors were excavated in East Africa and South Asia, dating back to the Pleistocene between 2 and 3.5 million years ago. , The whitish spots on the back of its ears are thought to play a role in communication. , Results of phylogenetic studies based on nDNA and mtDNA analysis showed that the last common ancestor of the Panthera and Neofelis genera is thought to have lived about 6.37 million years ago. Most leopards avoid people, but humans may occasionally be targeted as prey.  The coat of the leopard has been popular decorative clothing and a symbol of power, wealth and the exotic, being worn by African chiefs, European queens, Hollywood film stars and burlesque dancers. , Leopard populations on the Arabian Peninsula are small and fragmented.  In Manchuria and Siberia, they mate during January and February. The modern leopard is suggested to have evolved in Africa about 0.5 to 0.8 million years ago and to have radiated across Asia about 0.2 and 0.3 million years ago. Although usually slightly smaller than a human, an adult leopard is much more powerful and easily capable of killing one.  In a South African reserve, a male was wounded in a maleâmale territorial battle over a carcass.  It primarily hunts at night in most areas. The Ancient Romans kept leopards in captivity to be slaughtered in hunts as well as be used in executions of criminals. Their pelage is also more gray in colour with less defined spots.  In tropical forests, they do not always avoid the larger cats by hunting at different times. One large adult leopard was grabbed and consumed by a large crocodile while attempting to hunt along a bank in Kruger National Park. They engaged in poaching large herbivores, sale of bushmeat and trading leopard skins in Am Dafok. Rangers confiscated large amounts of poison in the camps of livestock herders who were accompanied by armed merchants. There may be a few other fluctuating territories, belonging to young individuals. , Between 2002 and 2012, at least four leopards were estimated to have been poached per week in India for the illegal wildlife trade of its skins and bones. Prey species in this weight range tend to occur in dense habitat and to form small herds.  Its white-tipped tail is about 60â100 cm (24â39 in) long, white underneath and with spots that form incomplete bands toward the tail's end.  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