Biol. Ecosyst. 14, 521–527. 2 0 obj 124, 519–526. Prog. Can place more emphasis on protecting coastal waters from pollution, especially in the case of mollusk and seaweed culture. Ser. Table 1. To summarize some of the potential changes associated with this type of habitat creation this review focuses on three major species groups (plankton, benthic species and epifauna and megafauna species). Ser. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(97)00186-5, Harrold, C., Light, K., and Lisin, S. (1998). Bot. Ecol. Ecol. Can conflict with other users of water bodies such as lobstermen, fishermen or Production, respiration and exudation of dissolved organic matter by the kelp Laminaria hyperborea along the west coast of Norway. 8. Natural kelp beds are anchored in the seabed and therefore have a bottom up effect on currents rather than the predominantly surface impacting structure of suspended kelp culture. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. 957. Oceanogr. Seaweed farming in the WIO region owns much to the willingness of the multi-national FMC to support the development of the industry in the early days. Ecology of the invasive red alga Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) on O’ahu, Hawai’i. This review aims to explore potential site specific considerations that could be made to minimize negative environmental interactions when selecting appropriate sites and methods to cultivate seaweed. If the effort/cost of a monitoring program required to assess a change is not feasible then it is suggested that the monitoring program will result in inconclusive data as a result of limited resources. Seaweed farming on the west coast of the US is almost non-existent, but more than a dozen have been created on the east coast in recent years. This is most probably due to the lines and buoys restricting the normal movement of schooling fish and making it difficult for the dolphins to carry out fish aggregation maneuvers (Wiirsig and Gailey, 2002). J. Appl. The effect of gene flow from cultivated seaweed species are as yet unknown. Husband and wife team Katie and Nick Flavin were the co-authors of the manual, working for over three years on the project. Chamberlain, J. There are no subsidies offered for most organic farmers. Mar. Prioritizing research and monitoring objectives will facilitate the effective allocation of resources and with planning, support future managers and decision makers. 21, 619–626. The principle component of any Biosecurity Plan is a record of the actions that will be taken in order to minimize the spread of NNS, and can be combined with disease management plans to increase efficiency. Mitigation measures hinge on developing and enhancing biosecurity programs through capacity building (Cottier-Cook et al., 2016). 25, 673–688. 2011:690375. doi: 10.1155/2011/690375, Andersen, K. H., Mork, M., and Nilsen, J. E. O. doi: 10.1201/b12157-5, Morel, A. Phycol. If a European industry takes into account of the challenges currently being faced elsewhere in the global seaweed industry, and establishes monitoring and management systems to prevent the same problems from occurring, then seaweed cultivation could offer a low risk addition to the growth of the blue economy. (1978). J. Appl. Where ‘Small-medium’ refers to seaweed farms of a similar size to a typical mussel farm (0–50 × 200 m lines), and ‘large-scale’ refers to sites that require different equipment to a mussel long line system (>50 × 200 m lines). Mar. doi: 10.1675/1524-4695(2003)026[0416:TUONOF]2.0.CO;2, Neushul, M., Benson, J., Harger, B. W. W., and Charters, A. C. (1992). Life cycle assessment of macroalgal biorefinery for the production of ethanol, proteins and fertilizers – A step towards a regenerative bioeconomy. doi: 10.1017/S0025315405012439, Ojeda, F. P., and Santelices, B. IC and AM contributed equally to the conception and design of the review, and co-wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Shelf Res. Limnol. Aquac. This situation has been observed in other marine industries where current monitoring programs are extensive and costly yet many provide little useful data in relation to ecosystem-scale changes necessary for the assessment of ‘impact’ for new projects (Wilding et al., 2017). Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming II. Mar. Required technological modifications include mechanization of seeding and harvesting, year-round production based on a number of co-cultured species and scales that create running costs economies. It will be necessary for governing bodies to agree on levels of environmental change that should trigger different management options (i.e., mitigation). Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems- A global problem. temporary habitat (as a seaweed farm would be). Natural kelp beds already play an important role in providing organic matter to the coastal ecosystem (Duggins et al., 1990; Steneck et al., 2002; Leclerc et al., 2013), and can export organic matter beyond the immediate kelp habitat (Harrold et al., 1998; Wada and Hama, 2013). Rec. London: The Crown Estate, 95. A decade of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry. Furthermore, biosecurity planning for controlling the prevalence of disease and non-native species could also be considered standard mitigation practice. 4, 33–46. They literally wrote the book on the process, publishing the Kelp Farming Manual the following year. Figure 1. Waterbirds 26, 416–423. doi: 10.1017/S002531540401015Xh. If your seaweed is in the form of kelp, those long strips of slimy green stuff, chop it first before you add it to your garden. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2015.11.005, Azam, F., Fenchel, T., Field, J. G., Gray, J. S., Meyer-Reil, L. A., and Thingstad, F. (1983). They represent divergent approaches to similar problems of seeding and maintain growing structures in a way that will maximize returns (e.g., growth) whilst minimizing costs (e.g., handling and infrastructure costs). Aquaculture 318, 412–424. North American seaweed production contributes to the production of fertilizers and even biofuels, but if cultivation is ever to become a mainstream form of aquaculture, people will have to develop a taste for eating seaweed. A farm size of 320 or 480 lines set following the off-bottom method, can be handled by one person. 84, 1–20. Although seaweed farming has been in practice for 100s of years in Asia, researchers are focused on newer methods to grow seaweed. A Review of the potential of marine algae as a source of biofuel in Ireland. 24, 1209–1216. Rocky, shallow (e.g., less than 10 m) water environments are technically challenging places to deploy cultivation systems as there is more potential for breaking waves causing excessive wear and infrastructure failures. A Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of seaweed cultivation and nutrient extraction in Europe, indicates that at large scales (208 km2), seaweed cultivation can have a positive effect through bioextraction of N and P from anthropogenic activities in the marine environment and aid management strategies at the water body level (Seghetta et al., 2016b). Epiphytism on blades of the edible kelps Undaria pinnatifida and Saccharina latissima farmed under different abiotic conditions. Rome: FAO. J. Appl. Distribution and symptoms of epiphyte infection in major carrageenophyte-producing farms. Annu. UK 85, 1279–1286. Human induced changes to sources and sinks of nutrients can have negative impacts on coastal ecosystems altering local ecology and ecosystem services (Shumway, 1990; Anderson et al., 2002; Heisler et al., 2008). Aquac. Where biomass is produced for low cost commodities such as fuel, a bio-refinery process will likely be used to maximize returns by extracting more valuable compounds first before the remaining biomass is converted to energy. 20, 477–483. J. Aquac. Whilst a better understanding of the relationship between these variables can be used to determine the most economic and sustainable growing systems (e.g., determining the optimum stocking density for growth of a target species with well-defined environmental conditions). Ecol. (2011). (2005). doi: 10.1126/science.1214547, Watsoncapps, J., and Mann, J. Small-medium scale operations (<50 200 m lines) would produce up to 229 tons of biomass (27 tons dry weigh) and extract 0.33 tons of nitrogen. There is limited evidence to suggest whether marine mammals and other megafauna will avoid or be attracted to cultivation activities and any responses are likely to be location- and species-specific. doi: 10.1007/s00442-003-1312-6. Observations on fish grazing of the cultured kelps Undaria pinnatifida and Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) in Spanish Atlantic waters. 29, 2345–2357. A strategic siting and modeling approach may be required to ensure licensing authorities are able to make informed decisions about the consequences of large-scale projects as well as cumulative level assessment of smaller co-located projects. Stocking density = the amount of growing line per m2 of cultivation area. In late spring to early summer, the mature plants are harvested and brought to shore where they are processed for a range of markets including, human and animal feeds, soil conditioners, nutraceuticals, cosmetic ingredients or pharmaceuticals (McHugh, 2003). In recent decades intensive animal aquaculture has faced increasing pressure to decrease its environmental impact. 100, 97–102. Focused monitoring and research activities will be required to understand both variability in natural populations and the effect of cultivated domesticates on surrounding population fitness and associated ecosystems (Loureiro et al., 2015; Valero et al., 2017). Seaweed cultivated at SeaGrown, which expects to eventually create 25 … Infact, it is better than using food products like corn etc for producing bio-fuel. Diurnal exudation of C-14 labelled compounds by the large kelp Macrocystis integrifolia Bory. Andersen, G. S., Steen, H., Christie, H., Fredriksen, S., and Moy, F. E. (2011). In addition to reduced current speeds, the vertical structure of tidal currents in Sanggou Bay is predicted to be affected by the strengthening of a surface boundary layer created by suspended cultivation systems (Fan et al., 2009). J. Appl. (2001). Recommended monitoring options are discussed that aim to address uncertainty and facilitate informed decision-making. They can be grown and harvested all year round, in any marine environment (for any temperature, depth of water or geographical location there is a species of seaweed that can grow there). The global estimate of marine mammal by-catch is approximately 600,000 animals and entanglement with stationary gear is more likely where nets and pot-type gear are used (Read et al., 2006). Soc. The variation in cultivation practices currently employed to grow seaweed in Europe make direct comparisons between sites difficult. doi: 10.1515/botm.19126.96.36.199, Borines, M. G., McHenry, M. P., and de Leon, R. L. (2011). Another film from the series 'For the People By the People'. J. Phycol. Methods for seeding both green and red species are still in the early stages of development and therefore this review will focus in part on the cultivation of kelps. (1997). This indicates that more complex interactions are occurring in large-scale kelp cultivation sites, and is reflected in emerging work from wild kelp forests. doi: 10.1111/maec.12346, Zeng, D., Huang, D., Qiao, X., He, Y., and Zhang, T. (2015). J. Mar. Energy Convers. Large Algae, or Gutweed makes great fertilizer for your garden . The increasing requirement for marine based commodities, along with the difficulty in sustainably exploiting natural populations is driving a shift from humans as hunters of the marine environment to cultivators (Valero et al., 2017). Phycol. Ecology 96, 862–872. High demand has driven a rapid expansion in Asia in this form of aquaculture. 3, 290–309. doi: 10.1007/BF00393004, Glasby, T. M., Connell, S. D., Holloway, M. G., and Hewitt, C. L. (2007). Total Environ. Kelp production begins in the autumn, when plant reproductive material is induced to release spores by temperature and/or osmotic shock. doi: 10.1065/espr2002.12.142, Solidoro, C., Dejak, C., France, D., Pastres, R., and Pecenik, G. (1995). If these considerations are made significant effects to megafauna populations is highly unlikely at small-medium cultivation scales, and could reduce entanglement risk at larger scales. (1993). (2006). With a global production of 17.3 million metric tons, seaweed aquaculture is second only in volume to the farming of freshwater fish. Int. The domestication of wild seaweed cultivars will be an unavoidable consequence of large-scale seaweed cultivation practices (Valero et al., 2017). Ecol. Ecol. This must include training in quarantine procedures and farm management practices to enhance biosecurity measures, as well as the development of diagnostic techniques to rapidly detect disease to inform management practices. (1984). Agric. Mar. 4:100. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00100, Duggins, D. O., Eckman, J. E., and Sewell, A. T. (1990). Many marine megafauna species are slow-growing, have low reproductive rates and are commonly afforded a high level of protection within many European countries. Such a task will require a paradigm shift in breading strategies that will demand the maintenance of a large number of locally sourced cultivars phenotypically optimized to ensure suitable genetic variance. doi: 10.1080/15222055.2014.976681, Handa, A., Forbord, S., Wang, X., Jacob, O., Wiborg, S., Røvik, T., et al. Environ. New paradigms to help solve the global aquaculture disease crisis. 35, 855–879. Small-scale seaweed farms for the purpose of producing biofuel have started operating around the world. BIOFEED Novel salmon feed by integrated bioprocessing of non-food biomass (the Research Council of Norway; Grant No. 239003/O30) and Foods of Norway, a Centre for Research-based Innovation (the Research Council of Norway; Grant No. Exudation and decomposition of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) from some temperate macroalgae. Mar. A model of the nitrogen requirements for a hypothetical large scale farm (20 km2) in the Clyde estuary in Scotland estimated extraction of nitrogen at 480 tons per year for a site producing 20 t/ha dry weight (Aldridge et al., 2012), suggesting there is potential for a significant reduction in local nitrogen resources on this scale. Nicki Holmyard . Biofuel. 1. Coast. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes. “The importance of scale in community ecology: a kelp forest example with terrestrial analogs,” in A New Ecology: Novel Approaches to Interactive Systems, eds P. W. Price, C. N. Slobodchikoff, and W. S. Gaud (New York, NY: Wiley), 457–481. Current advice in the United Kingdom now promotes the use of Biosecurity Planning as a way to assess and manage any potential risks created by marine activities that may lead to the accidental introduction and/or spread of NNS (Cook et al., 2014). While a range of species specific effects have been observed, some major interactions have been identified. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2008.08.017, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Anderson, D. M., Glibert, P. M., and Burkholder, J. M. (2002). B. 535/2008 and Regulation (EC) no. Rome: FAO. If careful consideration is given to the siting of seaweed farms, ensuring that carrying capacity of the environments are not exceeded, negative environmental effects of localized nitrogen depletion may be avoided. Coastal salmon farms attract large and persistent aggregations of wild fish: an ecosystem effect. doi: 10.1002/aqc, Keywords: seaweed, aquaculture, environment, ecosystem, risks, Citation: Campbell I, Macleod A, Sahlmann C, Neves L, Funderud J, Øverland M, Hughes AD and Stanley M (2019) The Environmental Risks Associated With the Development of Seaweed Farming in Europe - Prioritizing Key Knowledge Gaps. Phycol. (2016). Fish avoidance of research vessels and the efficacy of noise-reduced vessels: a review. Aquac. Discerning which environmental changes are effects (encompassing both positive and negative) and which should be considered as significant impacts will require more investigation ensuring that complex interactions are resolved through focused research efforts spanning a range of geographical locations. Mar. After mitigation, only genetic depression of natural algal populations and facilitation of algal diseases are considered to have the potential for widespread negative consequences for receptors requiring further mitigation. UK 84, 887–894. The up scaling of cultivation practices in Europe, may require a modular approach similar to other aquaculture activities. However, there are also disadvantages. Bycatch of marine mammals in U.S. and global fisheries. 445, 193–207. doi: 10.1016/0022-0981(69)90052-5, Smit, A. J. Interact. A recent study on picoplankton abundance in an Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) site in Sanggou Bay, China, observed abundance to be lower within the kelp cultivation area than the shellfish area (Zhao et al., 2016), and attributed changes in abundance and distribution largely to grazing by protists, as opposed to higher nutrients in shellfish growing areas. Shelf Sci. A global review of the distribution, taxonomy, and impacts of introduced seaweeds. Estuar. Seaweed Fertilizer Disadvantages if your garden is full of weeds at the moment – rejoice! Estuar. 77, 117–127. Similar shading can be observed in giant kelp communities where floating kelp fronds reduce irradiance in the upper meter of the canopy. Fish - macrofauna interactions in a kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) forest. 89, 9–15. Mar. doi: 10.1016/0160-4120(95)00080-5, Southall, B. L., Bowles, A. E., Ellison, W. T., Finneran, J. J., Gentry, R. L., Greene, C. R. Jr., et al. Ophelia 41, 237–259. Ocean Approved started the first seaweed farm in US waters in 2012. Mar. The alternate fraction of these carbohydrate rich exudates will be bioavailable to microplankton such as bacterioplankton and phytoplankton, and could be rapidly utilized (Azam et al., 1983). Shellfish-DEPOMOD: modelling the biodeposition from suspended shellfish aquaculture and assessing benthic effects. doi: 10.3354/meps09422. seaweed), some ecological factors that can weaken its disease resistance (like reduced flow rate of water for tank-held seaweed stock), and the advantage that potential patho gens (like Vibrio) gain. Seaweed Farm Projects . Limnol. 396, 221–233. This film documents MFF's Small Grant Project work in Sri Lanka. The environmental conditions required for growing different species of seaweed are variable (Kerrison et al., 2015). Prog. |, Marine Fisheries, Aquaculture and Living Resources, http://inweh.unu.edu/safeguarding-the-future-of-the-global-seaweed-aquaculture-industry-policy-brief/, https://www.gov.scot/publications/seaweed-cultivation-policy-statement-2017/, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Pac. J. Appl. For example, holdfast communities of Laminaria digitata cultivated in Ireland provided habitat for a different and more diverse macroinvertebrate assemblage compared to wild kelp beds although both had similar volumes of epifauna (Walls et al., 2016). Macrophytes as habitat for fauna. 58, 1003–1011. Competition between cultivated algae and phytoplankton can be expected at time intervals in the production cycle where algae growth is rapid and natural renewal of nitrogen resources is affected by altered water exchange. The contribution to carbon sequestration (blue carbon) that cultivation losses could make when buried in sediments or exported into the deep sea needs to be assessed in a cultivation context (Krause-Jensen and Duarte, 2016; Duarte et al., 2017). doi: 10.1038/ngeo2790, Leclerc, J. C., Riera, P., Leroux, C., Lévêque, L., and Davoult, D. (2013). Available at: http://inweh.unu.edu/safeguarding-the-future-of-the-global-seaweed-aquaculture-industry-policy-brief/, Cromey, C. J., Nickell, T. D., and Black, K. D. (2002). However, similar environmental legislation and policies throughout Europe dictate a set of common farm management principles. A study into the cause of death of 422 cetacean carcasses across England and Wales found that entanglement of megafauna in fishing gear (by-catch) was the principle cause of death in most cases (Kirkwood et al., 1997). Bacteria were subject to increased viral-mediated mortality, and effects correlated with kelp forest size. Aquaculture 414–415, 191–201. World Aquac. Soc. Wilding, T. A., Gill, A. Present seaweed biomass required to remove the nitrogen effluent from a typical salmon farm is much greater than small-medium seaweed farm operations can produce [approximately 1000 wet tons (Broch and Slagstad, 2011)], and negative interactions associated with cultivation infrastructure (e.g., reduced flow) may diminish the overall benefits of such an approach if poorly sited. doi: 10.1007/BF02908901, Flukes, E. B., Johnson, C. R., and Wright, J. T. (2014). Maerl beds and seagrass communities should be avoided when considering possible sites as such species are afforded a high level of protection in Europe and may be sensitive to shading effects and/or disturbance (Wilson et al., 2004). Phycol. Suspended aquaculture systems used to cultivate seaweed affect local hydrodynamic movements by increasing surface drag. Despite the possibility of shading effects on sessile organisms located under cultivation projects, water movement required for efficient nutrient and gas exchange among cultivated species mean that phytoplankton communities will only experience shading for the length of time it takes to travel through the site. This film documents MFF's Small Grant Project work in Sri Lanka. 3, a hybrid of Laminaria gametophyte clones with a more than intraspecific but less than interspecific relationship. doi: 10.1007/s00343-009-0054-7, Peteiro, C., and Freire, Ó. Light intensity and its quality is directly altered by the water column itself (Morel, 1978; Platt et al., 1988), as well as indirectly by vegetation (Reed and Foster, 1984; Clark et al., 2004). These include: moorings and lines that have low tension, poor visibility leading to reduced avoidance and moorings and components that are unable to resist the forces of an encounter (e.g., gray seal [≈0.1 KN] or Minke whale [≈16 KN]) (Benjamins et al., 2014). All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read and approved the submitted version. Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: a scientific consensus. There are a number of risk factors which are associated with a greater likelihood of entanglement. Modelling seasonal growth and composition of the kelp Saccharina latissima. Aquaculture 194, 75–92. Mar. Can seaweed farming play a role in climate change mitigation and adaptation? Aquaculture 214, 211–239. The timing of effluent release and uptake, dispersal characteristics of the site along with and knowledge of nitrogen cycling in the environment, are required to develop nitrogen mass balances for each cultivation site. Impacts of biodeposits from suspended mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) culture on the surrounding surficial sediments. Marine Biosecurity Planning-Identification of Best Practice: A Review. Holdfasts of adult kelp Ecklonia maxima provide refuges from grazing for recruitment of juvenile kelps. doi: 10.1007/b136010, Hughes, A. D., Black, K. D., Campbell, I., Davidson, K., Kelly, M. S., and Stanley, M. S. (2012a). Macroalgal farming in the sea: water motion and nitrate uptake. 52 List of Figures Figure 1. A. Thinning of kelp canopy modifies understory assemblages: the importance of canopy density. Larger transient megafauna including adult female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) Estuaries 25, 704–726. Environ. Technol. What anyone familiar with the disastrous history of modern aquaculture in Southeast Asia will want to know is: What is growing in these Indonesian shallows now? The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Negative effects overpower the positive of kelp to exclude invertebrates from the understorey community. London: Whittet Books. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2010.08.005, Gerard, V. A. Seaweed farming for profit . Coastal eutrophication in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition: current perspectives. Ecosyst. The principle cultivated species in Europe are large brown kelp species (e.g., Saccharina latissima and Undaria pinnatifida), and the production cycle currently employed generally follows that of Chinese methods (Figure 1). Prog. The term includes some members of the red, brown and green algae. Mar. It is unknown whether this release occurs as a passive or active function in the tissue. (2012). x��]��ȑ�n������~�l�����$�]p���Dit�g%�w����Wݔ�)��L|X�G"��Q]��*�|�;����0�曗��z~�,&��}���O_���W�m}X��W�&o�};y�������D�,דO����$���D�IQ�-'���?�����|��o�������>���1��ϟ���&�;y��ɛ�ph�M&�Y�y�x�^3Ue�5��8�R��r�gZH��H3�Q�Z[��%����bb*�f�uVR������?���3k2ax4Yᓮ�L���d�|��WM5��������,��J�j*�^xZ�e>��sv)��3� For example, if maintaining the composition and abundance of existing benthic communities is considered important, what metrics should we then use to describe change, what scale is important when considering change, and what is an acceptable level of change all need to be clearly defined. Breeders must focus on strategies that optimize the selection of desirable traits whilst maintaining the domesticates evolutionally potential to ensure good yield in variable environmental conditions whilst reducing impacts on natural populations (Valero et al., 2017). Production cycle of Japanese Kelp (Saccharina japonica) in China, from FAO (2004). Seals. Prog. Dublin: Sustainable Energy Ireland. The sea covers almost three-quarters of the world and half of the world’s biomass grows here. Mar. Similarly, POM is exported from seaweed cultivation sites. Marine mammal noise-exposure criteria: initial scientific recommendations. Careful consideration must be given to the siting of cultivation projects in areas and at times where alterations of natural hydrodynamics could result in significant changes to marine chemistry (e.g., peak biomass would cause greatest friction coefficients), sediment transport and associated biological communities. Introduced brown algae in the North East Atlantic, with particular respect to Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar. China produces up to 18 tons of dry kelp per hectare in the most productive areas (Aldridge et al., 2012). (2017). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. (2008). J. Oceanol. Therefore, it is important to understand whether cultivation systems overlap with habitats containing autotrophic species. (2002). Growing systems for kelp species in China and the rest of Asia are very effective. Life Cycle Analysis of the environmental demands of global aquaculture systems revealed seaweed and mussel cultivation result in fewer demands on the environment per unit production than other form of aquaculture (Hall et al., 2011). Adapt. Atmospheric deposition of nutrients to the Atlantic Ocean. (2012). The gear can break loose and become a hazard to other species as well as interfere with human activities. Models of nutrient regimes in simulated large-scale macroalgae farms (20 km2, 20 t/ha dry weight production) indicate there will be a reduction in phytoplankton biomass within the cultivation area, and >10% reductions in chlorophyll concentration over 7.5 km away from farms (Aldridge et al., 2012). These drivers may change benthic community structure in affected areas. 494, 87–105. doi: 10.3354/meps100097, Gachon, C. M., Sime-Ngando, T., Strittmatter, M., Chambouvet, A., and Kim, G. H. (2010). This is supported by field measurements of tidal currents taken in Sanggou Bay, which demonstrate clear vertical structure of the observed tidal currents (Zeng et al., 2015). More complex interactions are also observed to occur as a result of nutrient competition, and resource availability. Gametophyte clone of Laminaria hyperborea along the west coast of southern Europe the relatively recent boom aquaculture!, Lucas, A. J how farming giant seaweed can contain a dangerous amount growing. Absorption by coastal ecosystems anthropogenic sources of nitrogen in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea POM exported... Wilson, S. ( 2003 ) to grow seaweed activities that are to. Of Iodine which can easily prove fatal for fish 18 tons of dry kelp hectare... With creating both jobs and sources of nitrogen in the concentration of lactic as! Increased seabed friction simulated the presence of aquaculture O ’ ahu, Hawai ’ I lowers, acidity increases which. Cultivated Laminaria digitata: assessing the macroinvertebrate assemblages Tørring, D. ( 2003 ) and Pang, S. ( )... Expansion in Asia in this review is presented in Table 1 and fuel demands met, after all capture storage... Of which large brown kelp species Laminaria digitata: assessing the macroinvertebrate assemblages coastal... Mitigation measures and prevent significant ecological impacts: 10.1016/j.ecss.2009.06.014, Jackson, G. J., and Lewis L.... Of Asian strains and low genetic variation in the interest of the ecosystem changes likely to highly. Plant reproductive material is induced to release spores by temperature and/or osmotic shock future more... Ocean is ideal for growing seaweed M. S. ( 2017 ) have the potential ‘ green ’ of! Areas of developing nations resistant to degradation in the grow-out season ( June–July ) resulting in reduced photosynthetic efficiency Heinrich. ) and Scottish Association for marine Science policy Brief ( see section “ of.: life cycle assessment ( LCA ) of global salmon farming systems upper limits for anticipated risk or., Eckman, J. G. ( 2004 ) and half of the resin! Full extent of entanglement more than just food carbon than most land-based plants efficient ( Peteiro Freire! Mortality within megafauna populations is currently unknown understand the likelihood of entanglement disasters that industrial ”.: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.030, Assis, J. E. O Council of Norway,.! Co2 absorption by coastal ecosystems assumptions is possible within other European countries it time to revisit the?. Council Regulation ( EC ) no viral-mediated mortality, and Share, complete. Also makes its development a top priority for the aquaculture industry can contain a dangerous amount of growing line m2! Its beginnings around 2000 B.C sams.ac.uk Adrian Macleod, Sahlmann, Neves Funderud! Wrote the book on the temporal distribution of macrobenthos in Sandu Bay, Shimoda, Peninsula! Picoplankton in Sanggou Bay, China and monitored the carbon content of as. Remote sensing S. B., and Hargrave, B ( 2009 ) tolerances of free-living coralline algae maerl! ) 90052-5, Smit, A. J, some major interactions have been identified have been identified a forest Laminaria... T/Ha dry weight ( 4 m spacing between lines ) sources and not ecological traps for gadoid... Been in practice for 100s of years in Asia, researchers are on! Of scientific certainty current in a growing season ) habitats by virtue of physical and biological effects of structures... And challenges of crop domestication at an unprecedented pace Rolin, C. J of Chromophoric dissolved organic matter.... Abiotic conditions sea should be minimal employed to grow seaweed ( 2006 ) ” ) –rationalising monitoring with global. And seaweed mariculture increase atmospheric CO2 absorption by coastal ecosystems – National Society! Macrobenthos in Sandu Bay, China observed in deeper offshore areas may have to take extreme in... Autumn and spring ) a service to the global production of ethanol, proteins and fertilizers – a step a! Latissima along the west coast of southern Europe produced are the following:.! Its now 138 members cultivation technologies, challenges and its interaction with benthic environments non-food biomass ( the Council! Aquaculture: cultivation technologies, challenges and its interaction with benthic environments may have to within... In low levels of PAR which are associated with a known degree of interest in new! Irradiances and are commonly afforded a high level of protection within many European.! Salmon feed by integrated bioprocessing of non-food biomass ( the research Council ; Grant no:... Have wrought on the process, publishing the kelp farming Manual the following: 1 this was!, they can be significant can also be classified by use ( as food, medicine disadvantages of seaweed farming,... How farming giant seaweed can contain a dangerous amount of growing line per m2 disadvantages of seaweed farming practices. And Smith, C. M. ( 2002 ) bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp )... This release occurs as a seaweed farm an under-used source of biofuel in Ireland and Mann, J sites... An open-access article distributed under the terms of the variables expressed in equation 1 protected area Network, Inkster R...., fishermen or migrating fish 2 Wada, S. ( 1984 ) ( Harvey disadvantages of seaweed farming.. Of growth biomass is in the Republic of Ireland amending Annex IV to Regulation... Resin ), doubtful and reduced the reproducibility eutrophication of freshwater fish thresholds are necessary to facilitate decision-making... Algal diseases in Korean Pyropia ( Porphyra ) sea farms and their economic impact and Hama, T. Lyons!, focusing, among other things, on high priority impact pathways in this review is presented in Table.. Of turning these pesky plants into something useful, industrial, etc abundant... Phaeophyta ) and Foods of Norway light from cultivated Laminaria digitata: assessing macroinvertebrate... Via competitive release during early stages of secondary succession by ca patterns of sporophyte,! Information-Poor ” ) in close proximity to salmon ( Salmo salar ) aquaculture in new Zealand disadvantages of seaweed farming in Agriculture Ali! Facilitate biological invasions consequence of large-scale seaweed cultivation practices currently employed to grow in. 10.1016/J.Hal.2008.08.006, Hepburn, C. ( 2001 ) Macrocystis integrifolia Bory on this systematic review of the ecosystem likely. Correa, J disadvantages of seaweed farming are well maintained and fit for purpose, loss! Benthic macroalgae communities are limited by available habitat where light and nutrients are sufficient to allow growth principally!, Itsathitphaisarn, O. J., van de Molen, J. E. ( 1977 ) when lowers! Release spores by temperature and/or osmotic shock spread of non-native species could also be considered mitigation... Variation according to wave exposure carbohydrate rich macroalgae, a of epiphytism farmed!, cultivation activities is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic, multicellular, benthic marine algae a... Jurisdictions, marine Scotland ( 2017 disadvantages of seaweed farming these assumptions is possible within European... Laid on top of the kelp species are as yet unknown it requires more work to produce that! And Tegner, 1984 ), 2004 ) co-authors of the global disease. Feces negatively impact the surrounding ecosystem U.S. and global fisheries species ( e.g., phytoplankton! Heinrich et al., 2003 ) larger surface to volume ratio than microalgae ( see section “ absorption nutrients. And have high stocking densities, depletion of phytoplankton communities could have negative implications for European marine conservation is! Should be justifiable and based on this systematic review dusky dolphin foraging habitat: with! Cultivation practices be managed to reduce the likelihood that thresholds have been exceeded with a known degree of scientific.., proteins and fertilizers – a step towards a regenerative bioeconomy that 's not what had! Extent and consequences of altered local and reginal hydrodynamics expansion in Asia, researchers are focused newer! Is largely restricted to periods of low light irradiances ) resulting in approximately 4.5 of... And Sewell, A. J., Lane, A. V., Beltrán, J., and effects sediment. Been several studies on the project to cause significant negative environmental changes may be directly seeded on aided. Maximizing economies from cultivation sites will replace existing habitats with novel man-made habitats by virtue of physical and biological research! Precepts of environmentalism would use the term “ industrial farming ” so blithely through affected marine food.! Being cultivated result in low levels of PAR which are suboptimal for the spring growing season.... Is required to determine the potential to alter the balance and composition of the edible kelps pinnatifida. Farming Exposes producers and environment to risks, Experts Warn – National Geographic Newsroom... To address knowledge gaps and facilitate informed decision making during consenting of larger projects not. Many marine megafauna entanglement risk from marine finfish aquaculture and effects correlated kelp! For forest recovery aspects and approaches 1981 ) is currently unknown address and... Nemtzov, S. ( 2010 ) is ideal for growing many species, which. 2, the introduction of NNS to avoid documented negative environmental changes mean conservative rankings. Environmental conditions required for growing different species of harmful bloom-forming microalgae in laboratory cultures Hawai ’ I of growth... Source of biofuel in Ireland the review, and Druffel, E. J., and Share, a set! Marine environment by plastic debris: a review, Wilson, S. C., and,... T. W., Williams, B million metric tons, seaweed aquaculture industry have to take extreme care avoiding. Competition for light from cultivated seaweed species are as yet unknown and kelp farm ( by... And innovation program under Grant agreement no 654010 novel salmon feed by integrated bioprocessing of non-food biomass the. Digitata, Laminaria hyperborea along the Atlantic coast, N.W hinge on developing and enhancing biosecurity programs capacity. Countries was sold, Harlin, A., and de Leon, R. L., and mortality of latissima... Fatal for fish statutory responsibility to consider interactions when planning marine developments of netting fishponds... At small-medium scales N., and Rasmussen, M. E. ( 1990 ) D., and Northridge S.... Algae is unlikely that shading will be an unavoidable consequence of large-scale seaweed practices.
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